12 júla 2005

HN, 28.6.2005: Nový lesný zákon je veľký problém

Lesné, vodné a pôdne hospodárstvo disponujú veľmi rozsiahlou legislatívou, ktorá vo výraznej miere obmedzuje slobodu podnikania so zložkami životného prostredia. K presadzovaniu reštrikcií má vláda niekoľko dôvodov. Tým prvým je snaha ochrániť tých, ktorí sú poškodzovaní vedľajšími negatívnymi dôsledkami podnikania v prírode – napríklad používaním hnojív v poľnohospodárstve, vypúšťaním odpadových vôd v priemysle alebo ťažbou v lesnom hospodárstve. Tým druhým je uplatnenie rôznych foriem verejného záujmu, ktoré v lesnom hospodárstve predstavuje najmä ochrana „environmentálnej“ hodnoty lesa, umožnenie verejnosti voľne vstupovať do prírody a prijímať niektoré úžitky lesa (napríklad zberom plodov).

Dobrá legislatíva v oblasti životného prostredia však musí dodržiavať dve základné a nevyhnutné zásady. Za prvé, každé preventívne opatrenie vlády smerujúce ku administratívnej kontrole a obmedzeniam podnikania musí byť opodstatnené, racionálne zdôvodnené a uplatnené len v nevyhnutnej a efektívnej miere. A za druhé, náklady za uplatnenie verejného záujmu musí znášať ten, kto verejný záujem uplatňuje.

Problémom nového lesného zákona, ktorý vrátil prezident na opätovné prerokovanie parlamentu, je fakt, že tieto zásady nerešpektuje. Zákon pokračuje vo veľmi podobnej koncepcii kontroly, administratívneho zaťažovania a uplatňovania verejného záujmu voči podnikateľom, ako ju definoval už v pôvodne platných normách. Celý text zákona je mimoriadne rozsiahlym výpočtom práv súčasných úradov a úradníkov a povinností obhospodarovateľov lesa voči týmto úradom.

Miera obmedzení vlastníka lesníckymi zákonmi je podľa štúdie známeho českého odborníka Jiřího Olivu, podrobne analyzujúcej legislatívy viacerých európskych krajín, najväčšia práve v Čechách a na Slovensku. Najmarkantnejšie rozdiely v porovnaní s inými krajinami sa prejavujú najmä v povinnosti obhospodarovateľa riadiť sa lesnými hospodárskymi plánmi, v zákazoch flexibilnejších foriem obnovy lesa (napr. v holoruboch), v rozsiahlom štátnom dozore nad hospodárením v lesoch, v povinnosti zamestnávať odborného lesného hospodára a v legislatívnom riešení mimoprodukčných funkcií lesa.

Mnohé z reštrikcií uplatnených vo verejnom záujme nevychádzajú z reálnych predpokladov o tom, že by bez týchto vládnych zásahov dochádzalo k poškodeniu stanovených funkcií lesa. Liberálnejšie lesné zákony v krajinách západnej Európy sa nijako neprejavujú na zhoršenej environmentálnej kvalite lesov. Naopak, prísna lesnícka legislatíva na Slovensku pôsobí v mnohých prípadoch skôr kontraproduktívne, čo sa prejavilo i na kalamite vo Vysokých Tatrách, ku ktorej prispel i štátom obmedzované obnovovanie štruktúry lesa intenzívnejšou ťažbou.

Predstavitelia ministerstva tvrdia, že miera obmedzení vlastníka je v novom zákone oveľa nižšia. V skutočnosti sa však viaceré strategické „pro-vlastnícke“ rozhodnutia vo svojom znení buď navzájom popierajú, alebo nejasnou formuláciou presúvajú právomoci na široké rozhodovacie kompetencie orgánov štátnej správy. Typickým príkladom je holorubný spôsob ťažby, ktorý zákon v jednom odstavci definuje ako štandardný hospodársky spôsob, ale hneď v ďalšom ho zakazuje. Na inom mieste dáva vlastníkovi pomerne rozsiahle možnosti požiadať úrad o zákaz vstupu do svojho lesa, zároveň však prideľuje všetkým ľuďom právo vstupovať na lesné pozemky a úradu široké rozhodovacie kompetencie rozhodnúť o žiadostiach. V prípade lesných hospodárskych plánov, ktoré sú pre obhospodarovateľov jednoznačne vnúteným nákladom zo strany štátu, štát v jednej časti prenáša náklady na seba, avšak hneď v ďalšej požaduje od obhospodarovateľa refundáciu väčšiny nákladov. Aj v prípade „posunu“ k riešeniu vari najzávažnejšieho lesníckeho problému – náhrady za obmedzenie vlastníckych práv – ide o rozpačitý výsledok. Norma síce popisuje prípady, v ktorých dochádza k obmedzeniu vlastníckych práv (čím však len rozvíja definície zákona o ochrane prírody), avšak nedefinuje to najdôležitejšie: mechanizmus určenia výšky náhrady ani spôsob jej vymáhania.

Okrem ustanovení týkajúcich sa verejného záujmu a preventívneho princípu je tu však ešte jeden závažný problém. Je ním ustanovenie, ktoré zaisťuje trvanie vlastníctva všetkých štátnych lesov a majetku tým, že zakazuje jeho prevod do súkromného vlastníctva. Týmto spôsobom sa „zabetónuje“ štátne vlastníctvo vyše 42 % lesov Slovenska. Aký je k tomu dôvod? Zabezpečuje vari štátne vlastníctvo lesov lepšiu kvalitu lesov, než vlastníctvo neštátne? Samozrejme, že nie, to len súčasní zamestnanci štátnych lesov chcú mať zrejme poistenú svoju budúcnosť.

Nový lesný zákon neodstránil zásadné deformácie predošlej legislatívy, ba naopak, pridal k nim niekoľko ďalších. Preto je lesný zákon veľký problém a treba ho kompletne prepracovať.

Článok bol publikovaný v denníku Hospodárske noviny dňa 28. júna 2005.



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